Exercise 23.10 [chomsky-form-exercise]

In this exercise you will transform $\large \varepsilon_0$ into Chomsky Normal Form (CNF). There are five steps: (a) Add a new start symbol, (b) Eliminate $\epsilon$ rules, (c) Eliminate multiple words on right-hand sides, (d) Eliminate rules of the form (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow$${\it Y}$), (e) Convert long right-hand sides into binary rules.

  1. The start symbol, $S$, can occur only on the left-hand side in CNF. Replace ${\it S}$ everywhere by a new symbol ${\it S’}$ and add a rule of the form ${\it S}$ $\rightarrow$${\it S’}$.

  2. The empty string, $\epsilon$ cannot appear on the right-hand side in CNF. $\large \varepsilon_0$ does not have any rules with $\epsilon$, so this is not an issue.

  3. A word can appear on the right-hand side in a rule only of the form (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow$word). Replace each rule of the form (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow$…word …) with (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow$…${\it W’}$ …) and (${\it W’}$ $\rightarrow$word), using a new symbol ${\it W’}$.

  4. A rule (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow{\it Y}$ ${\it Z}$) or (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow$word). Replace each rule of the form (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow$${\it Y}$) with a set of rules of the form (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow$…), one for each rule (${\it Y}$ $\rightarrow$…), where (…) indicates one or more symbols.

  5. Replace each rule of the form (${\it X}$ $\rightarrow{\it Y}$ ${\it Z’}$) and (${\it Z’}$ $\rightarrow$${\it Z}$ …), where ${\it Z’}$ is a new symbol.

Show each step of the process and the final set of rules.

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