Artificial IntelligenceAIMA Exercises

Suppose a knowledge base contains just the following first-order Horn clauses:
$$Ancestor(Mother(x),x)$$ $$Ancestor(x,y) \land Ancestor(y,z) \implies Ancestor(x,z)$$ Consider a forward chaining algorithm that, on the $j$th iteration, terminates if the KB contains a sentence that unifies with the query, else adds to the KB every atomic sentence that can be inferred from the sentences already in the KB after iteration $j-1$.
1. For each of the following queries, say whether the algorithm will (1) give an answer (if so, write down that answer); or (2) terminate with no answer; or (3) never terminate.
1. $Ancestor(Mother(y),John)$
2. $Ancestor(Mother(Mother(y)),John)$
3. $Ancestor(Mother(Mother(Mother(y))),Mother(y))$
4. $Ancestor(Mother(John),Mother(Mother(John)))$
2. Can a resolution algorithm prove the sentence $\lnot Ancestor(John,John)$ from the original knowledge base? Explain how, or why not.
3. Suppose we add the assertion that $\lnot(Mother(x)x)$ and augment the resolution algorithm with inference rules for equality. Now what is the answer to (b)?

Suppose a knowledge base contains just the following first-order Horn clauses:
$$Ancestor(Mother(x),x)$$ $$Ancestor(x,y) \land Ancestor(y,z) \implies Ancestor(x,z)$$ Consider a forward chaining algorithm that, on the $j$th iteration, terminates if the KB contains a sentence that unifies with the query, else adds to the KB every atomic sentence that can be inferred from the sentences already in the KB after iteration $j-1$.
1. For each of the following queries, say whether the algorithm will (1) give an answer (if so, write down that answer); or (2) terminate with no answer; or (3) never terminate.
1. $Ancestor(Mother(y),John)$
2. $Ancestor(Mother(Mother(y)),John)$
3. $Ancestor(Mother(Mother(Mother(y))),Mother(y))$
4. $Ancestor(Mother(John),Mother(Mother(John)))$
2. Can a resolution algorithm prove the sentence $\lnot Ancestor(John,John)$ from the original knowledge base? Explain how, or why not.
3. Suppose we add the assertion that $\lnot(Mother(x)x)$ and augment the resolution algorithm with inference rules for equality. Now what is the answer to (b)?

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