Exercise 12.1

Define an ontology in first-order logic for tic-tac-toe. The ontology should contain situations, actions, squares, players, marks (X, O, or blank), and the notion of winning, losing, or drawing a game. Also define the notion of a forced win (or draw): a position from which a player can force a win (or draw) with the right sequence of actions. Write axioms for the domain. (Note: The axioms that enumerate the different squares and that characterize the winning positions are rather long. You need not write these out in full, but indicate clearly what they look like.)