Show how a single ternary constraint such as “$A + B = C$” can be turned into three binary constraints by using an auxiliary variable. You may assume finite domains. (Hint: Consider a new variable that takes on values that are pairs of other values, and consider constraints such as “$X$ is the first element of the pair $Y$.”) Next, show how constraints with more than three variables can be treated similarly. Finally, show how unary constraints can be eliminated by altering the domains of variables. This completes the demonstration that any CSP can be transformed into a CSP with only binary constraints.
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